Sex Offender Registry Requirements Across the United States

What is the Sex Offender Registry?

Every state and U.S. territory requires those convicted of sex offenses to be added to a registry to be monitored and tracked after their release back into the community.  Information about the offender is collected and shared with local and federal authorities, as well as the general public.  Requirements and restrictions are often placed on registered sex offenders.  That registration process is unique in each state and U.S. territory.

Reentry (2)

What is SORNA?

The Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) was passed in 2006 as part of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act to provide federal standards for jurisdictions to follow.  SORNA calls for states and U.S. territories to meet minimum requirements for sex offender registration and notification.

Why Are the Requirements for Sex Offender Registration Different Everywhere?

While SORNA’s guidelines streamlined registration and notification requirements across the country, these requirements are far from uniform.  Each jurisdiction determines the details of their own registration process.  This leaves a patchwork of rules for sex offenders that vary widely depending on where a registrant lives or works.

Where PIN Comes In

Probation Information Network developed a list of questions regarding the sex offender registration requirements across the country.  These are questions that might concern the public, victims and their advocates, or those who are facing registration or are currently registered and their loved ones.  We then searched the statutes or code of each jurisdiction for the laws surrounding sex offender registration and notification.  Where necessary, we consulted with the law enforcement agency in charge of the jurisdiction’s registry to provide clear and concise answers to the following questions:

 

    • What is the duration of registration?

How long must a sex offender remain on the registry?  The length of time a sex offender must comply with registration requirements varies widely depending on the jurisdiction where the registrant lives, and the level of the offense committed.  All but 2 jurisdictions offer a path for eventual removal from the registry for at least some of their registrants.

 

    • Must the immediate community be notified directly, either by the offender or law enforcement?

Every jurisdiction has passive community notification in the form of a public sex offender registry website.  Concerned citizens are free to search the website and can sign up for email notifications if a sex offender moves into their neighborhood.  Some jurisdictions go even further and require active notification, where either law enforcement or the offender themselves is required to directly notify the immediate community that a sex offender is in the area.  This can take many forms, including electronic, mail, or in-person notification, publication in local newspapers, and community meetings.

 

    • What are the residence distance restrictions?

Are there any restrictions on where a registered sex offender can live?  Some jurisdictions restrict registrants from living within a measured distance of certain places.  This restriction could be for all registrants, or only for higher-level offenders or those under supervision.  Some jurisdictions do not have a state-wide restriction but do allow local jurisdictions to enact their own.

 

    • What are the employment distance restrictions?

Registered sex offenders are usually restricted from certain types of employment, and from working at establishments that specifically cater to minors.  Some jurisdictions go even further and restrict registrants from working within a measured distance of certain places.

 

    • Is an employer’s information included on the public registry?

Returning citizens of every type need to find employment upon reentry, and sex offenders are no exception.  Some jurisdictions include registrants’ employment information on the public registry website.  This could be the employer’s address or in some cases the name of the employer.

 

    • Are online identifiers included on the public registry?

Some jurisdictions require registered sex offenders to report any identifiers they use online, such as email addresses and social media user names.  In some jurisdictions that information is included on the public registry website, separate from the registrant’s profile, in a feature that allows the pubic to search by specific identifiers.

 

    • Is a state-issued ID required to be labeled?

Some jurisdictions require a state-issued ID, such as a driver’s license, to be labeled to identify the holder as a registered sex offender.  This label could be the words “Sex Offender” printed on the ID in a prominent place or a more subtle designation known to law enforcement.

 

    • What is the cost of registration?

Is there a fee to register as a sex offender?  Some jurisdictions pass on some of their administrative costs to the registrants.  This could be a one-time fee paid only upon initial registration, or an ongoing fee paid annually or quarterly.  Some jurisdictions charge a fee every time a registrant updates their information.

 

    • How long can a registrant be in the state for work or education before registration is required?

Does a sex offender have to register if they work or go to school in a different state?  It depends on the state, and how long the registrant will be there.  Some jurisdictions require registrants to notify authorities immediately, while others allow limited stays without requiring registration.  Registrants currently under supervision usually need permission from their Parole or Probation Officer before traveling and should always consult their supervising officer.

 

    • How long can a registrant visit the state before registration is required?

Can a registered sex offender go on vacation?  Does a sex offender have to register if they visit a different state?  It depends on the state, and how long the registrant will be there.  Some jurisdictions require registrants to notify authorities immediately, while others allow limited stays without requiring registration.  Registrants currently under supervision usually need permission from their Parole or Probation Officer before traveling and should always consult their supervising officer.

 

The answers provided are taken directly from the laws found on the state or territory’s legislative website or, where necessary, from the website of the law enforcement agency in charge of the jurisdiction’s registry.  In some cases, we contacted state or territory officials for clarification and have directly quoted those conversations.

Disclaimer

While we stand by our research, it is for informational purposes only.  It should not be considered legal advice and, while we strive to provide accurate and up to date information, it is not guaranteed to be complete or correct.  We provide links to each jurisdiction’s legislative and law enforcement websites and maintain a directory of lawyers who specialize in sex offender registration laws.  For those currently under supervision, consult with your Parole or Probation Officer for guidance.

Is an employer's information included on the public registry?

Returning citizens of every type need to find employment upon reentry, and sex offenders are no exception.  Some jurisdictions include registrants’ employment information on the public registry website.  This could be the employer’s address or in some cases the name of the employer.

Employers Information Included on the Public Registry Map

31 states and territories include an employer’s information on the public registry.

This comparison chart is intended to be a quick reference guide to compare the sex offender registry requirements across jurisdictions.  It does not provide enough details for a full and accurate picture and should not be used by itself, but rather as a tool alongside the full-text versions.

StateIs an employer’s information included on the public registry?
AlabamaNo
AlaskaYes
ArizonaNo
ArkansasYes, for Levels 2, 3, & 4
CaliforniaNo
ColoradoNo
ConnecticutNo
DelawareYes, for Tiers 2 & 3
FloridaNo
GeorgiaNo
HawaiiYes
IdahoNo
IllinoisNo
IndianaYes
IowaNo
KansasNo
KentuckyNo
LouisianaYes
MaineYes
MarylandYes
MassachusettsYes, for Levels 2 & 3
MichiganYes
MinnesotaNo
MississippiYes
MissouriYes
MontanaNo
NebraskaNo
NevadaYes
New HampshireNo
New JerseyNo
New MexicoYes, if employment requires them to have direct contact with children
New YorkYes, for Levels 2 & 3
North CarolinaNo
North DakotaYes, in some cases
OhioYes
OklahomaYes, including employer's name and phone number in some cases
OregonYes, however the public registry only lists Level 3 offenders
PennsylvaniaYes
Rhode IslandNo
South CarolinaYes
South DakotaNo
TennesseeYes
TexasNo
UtahOnly if employed at an educational institution; Volunteer locations also included
VermontNo
VirginiaYes
WashingtonNo
West VirginiaYes, but only city and county of employment
WisconsinNo
WyomingYes
Washington DCYes, but no specific addresses only block level
GuamYes
NMIYes
Puerto RicoYes, in some cases
US Virgin IslandsYes

Alabama

No.

Alaska

Yes.

AK Stat § 18.65.087

(b) Information about a sex offender or child kidnapper that is contained in the central registry, including sets of fingerprints, is confidential and not subject to public disclosure except as to the sex offender’s or child kidnapper’s name, aliases, address, photograph, physical description, description of motor vehicles, license numbers of motor vehicles, and vehicle identification numbers of motor vehicles, place of employment, date of birth, crime for which convicted, date of conviction, place and court of conviction, length and conditions of sentence, and a statement as to whether the offender or kidnapper is in compliance with requirements of AS 12.63 or cannot be located.

Arizona

No.

Arkansas

Yes, for Levels 2, 3, & 4

AR Code § 12-12-913

(j)(1)(A) The following information concerning a sex offender registered under this subchapter who is classified as a Level 3 or Level 4 offender by the Community Notification Assessment shall be made public:

(ix) The street name and block number, county, city, and zip code where the sex offender is employed;

(x) Any institution of higher education in which the sex offender is enrolled;

(j)(1)(B) If a sex offender registered under this subchapter was eighteen (18) years of age or older at the time of the commission of the sex offense that required registration under this subchapter and the victim of the sex offense was fourteen (14) years of age or younger and the sex offender is classified as a Level 2 offender by the Community Notification Assessment, the following information concerning the registered sex offender shall be made public:

(ix) The street name and block number, county, city, and zip code where the sex offender is employed;

(x) Any institution of higher education in which the sex offender is enrolled;

California

No.

CA Penal Code § 290.46

(a) (1) On or before the dates specified in this section, the Department of Justice shall make available information concerning persons who are required to register pursuant to Section 290 to the public via an Internet Web site as specified in this section. The department shall update the Internet Web site on an ongoing basis. All information identifying the victim by name, birth date, address, or relationship to the registrant shall be excluded from the Internet Web site. The name or address of the person’s employer and the listed person’s criminal history other than the specific crimes for which the person is required to register shall not be included on the Internet Web site. The Internet Web site shall be translated into languages other than English as determined by the department.

Colorado

No.

Connecticut

No.

Delaware

Yes, for tiers 2 and 3.

11 DE Code § 4121

(a) (3) “Searchable records available to the public” means records regarding every sex offender who has been convicted and who is thereafter designated to Risk Assessment Tier II or III pursuant to this section. Such records shall also include the last verified addresses for the offender, and shall identify the specific sex offense or offenses for which the offender was convicted, the date or dates of the convictions and all information required for registration pursuant to § 4120(d)(2) of this title as is practicable given the method of community notification, except that relationship to the victim shall not be a searchable record and age of victim shall be searchable only by age ranges birth to 11 years, 12 to 15 years, 16 to 17 years, and 18 and above. The records may also include other information designated for public access by the Superintendent of the Delaware State Police. Exempt from the records are the identity of the victims, the Social Security number of the offender, and arrests that did not result in conviction. The public access records shall include a warning that information should not be used to unlawfully injure, harass, or commit a crime against any individual named in the registry or residing or working at any reported address. The warning shall note that any such action could result in civil or criminal penalties. These records shall be searchable by the name of the sex offender, by suitable geographic criteria, and by as many other required data elements as is technically feasible. These records shall be made available upon request through police agencies, public libraries, public schools and the Internet. The records shall be maintained by the Superintendent of the Delaware State Police, as set forth in § 4120 of this title, and elsewhere in this section. They shall be updated as often as practicable, but not less than every 3 months.

Florida

No.

Georgia

No.

Hawaii

Yes.

HI Rev State § 846E-3

(b)  For purposes of this section, “public information” means:

(7)  The street name and zip code of the covered offender’s current locations of employment, including information for any place where the covered offender works as a volunteer or otherwise works without remuneration;

(8)  For covered offenders who may not have a fixed place of employment, a description of the places where such a covered offender works;

Idaho

No.

ID Code § 18-8323

Information within the sexual offender registry collected pursuant to this chapter is subject to release only as provided by this section.

(3)  The following information shall not be disclosed to the public:

(f)  Any information identifying any person related to, living with, working for, employing or otherwise associated with a registered sexual offender.

Illinois

No.

Indiana

Yes.

IC 36-2-13-5.5

(b) The public portal of the Indiana sex and violent offender registry Internet web site must include the following information for every sex or violent offender who is required to register under IC 11-8-8-7:

(3) If the person is required to register under IC 11-8-8-7(a)(2) or IC 11-8-8-7(a)(3), the address of each of the sex or violent offender’s employers in Indiana, the address of each campus or location where the sex or violent offender is enrolled in school in Indiana, and the address where the sex or violent offender stays or intends to stay while in Indiana.

Iowa

No.

IA Code § 692A.121

  1. b. (2) The following relevant information shall not be disclosed on the internet site:

(b)  The employer name, address, or location where a sex offender acts as an employee in any form of employment.

Kansas

No.

K.S.A. 22-4909

(c) Notwithstanding subsection (a), information posted on an internet website sponsored or created by a registering law enforcement agency or the Kansas bureau of investigation shall not contain the address of any place where the offender is an employee or any other information about where the offender works. Such internet website shall contain a statement that employment information is publicly available and may be obtained by contacting the appropriate registering law enforcement agency or by signing up for community notification through the official website of the Kansas bureau of investigation.

Kentucky

No.

Louisiana

Yes.

Maine

Pre-2013 applies to a person sentenced prior to January 1, 2013.

Post-2013 applies to a person who commits criminal conduct and is sentenced on or after January 1, 2013.

Yes.

Pre-2013 34-A ME Rev Stat § 11221

9. Public access to information.  The bureau shall provide information to the public as follows.  

A. The bureau shall post on the Internet for public inspection the following information concerning a registrant:  

(3) The registrant’s place of employment and college or school being attended, if applicable, and the corresponding address and location;   

Post-2013 34-A ME Rev Stat § 11281

7. Public access to registrant information.  After initial registration, the bureau shall provide information to the public as follows.  

A. The bureau shall post on the Internet for public inspection the following information concerning a registrant who is a Tier I registrant, Tier II registrant or Tier III registrant: 

(3) The registrant’s place of employment and college or school being attended, if applicable, and the corresponding mailing address and physical location;   

Maryland

Yes.

Massachusetts

Yes, for Levels 2 and 3.

MGL c.6 § 178D

Notwithstanding sections 178C to 178P, inclusive, or any other general or special law to the contrary and in addition to any responsibility otherwise imposed upon the board, the board shall make the sex offender information contained in the sex offender registry, delineated below in subsections (i) to (viii), inclusive, available for inspection by the general public in the form of a comprehensive database published on the internet, known as the ”sex offender internet database”; provided, however, that no registration data relating to a sex offender given a level 1 designation by the board under section 178K shall be published in the sex offender internet database but may be disseminated by the board as otherwise permitted by said sections 178C to 178P, inclusive; and provided further, that the board shall keep confidential and shall not publish in the sex offender internet database any information relating to requests for registration data under sections 178I and 178J:

(iii) the offender’s work address;

Michigan

Yes.

MI Comp L § 28.728

(2) The department shall maintain a public internet website separate from the law enforcement database described in subsection (1) to implement section 10(2) and (3). Except as provided in subsection (4), the public internet website must contain all of the following information for each individual registered under this act:

(d) The address of each of the individual’s employers. For purposes of this subdivision, “employer” includes a contractor and any individual who has agreed to hire or contract with the individual for his or her services. Information under this subsection must include the address or location of employment if different from the address of the employer.

Minnesota

No.

Mississippi

Yes.

Missouri

Yes.

MO Rev Stat § 589.402.

3. Only the information listed in this subsection shall be provided to the public in the registered sexual offender search:

(4) The residence, temporary, work, and school addresses of the offender, including the street address, city, county, state, and zip code;

Montana

No.

Nebraska

No.

NE Code § 29-4009.

(1) Information obtained under the Sex Offender Registration Act shall not be confidential, except that the following information shall only be disclosed to law enforcement agencies, including federal or state probation or parole agencies, if appropriate:

(h) The name of any employer of a sex offender. 

Nevada

Yes.

New Hampshire

No.

RSA 651-B:7 III

(c) The public list shall not include:

(4) The name of the employer or school which the offender attends. 

New Jersey

No, however:

In all three levels of notification, the information provided includes the offender’s name, description and photograph, address, place of employment or school if applicable, a description of the offender’s vehicle and license plate number, and a brief description of the offense.

– New Jersey State Police

New Mexico

Only if the registrant’s employment requires them to have direct contact with children.

NM Stat § 29-11A-5.1

E. The department shall establish and manage an internet web site that provides the public with registration information regarding sex offenders described in Subsection A of this section, except that the department shall not provide registration information on the internet web site regarding a sex offender who was less than eighteen years of age when the sex offender committed the sex offense for which the sex offender was convicted as a youthful offender, as provided in Section 32A-2-3 NMSA 1978, unless at the time of sentencing, the court made a finding that the sex offender is not amenable to treatment and is a danger to the community. The registration information provided to the public pursuant to this subsection shall not include a sex offender’s social security number or DNA information or the identity of a sex offender’s place of employment, unless the sex offender’s employment requires the sex offender to have direct contact with children. The internet web site shall provide only the following registration information:

(1) the sex offender’s legal name and any other names or aliases that the sex offender is using or has used;

(2) the sex offender’s current address and the address of every place where the sex offender habitually lives;

(3) if the sex offender’s employment involves direct contact with children, the sex offender’s place of employment;

(4) the sex offenses for which the sex offender has been convicted;

(5) a photograph of the sex offender;

(6) the sex offender’s date of birth;

(7) a physical description, including a description of any tattoos, scars or other distinguishing features on the sex offender’s body that would assist in identifying the sex offender; and

(8) a link that will pinpoint the location of the sex offender’s place of employment if the sex offender has direct contact with children.

New York

Yes, for level 2 and 3 offenders only.

NY Corr L § 168-Q

1. The division shall maintain a subdirectory of level two and three sex offenders. The subdirectory shall include the exact address, address of the offender’s place of employment and photograph of the sex offender along with the following information, if available: name, physical description, age and distinctive markings. Background information including all of the sex offender’s crimes of conviction that require him or her to register pursuant to this article, modus of operation, type of victim targeted, the name and address of any institution of higher education at which the sex offender is enrolled, attends, is employed or resides and a description of special conditions imposed on the sex offender shall also be included. The subdirectory shall have sex offender listings categorized by county and zip code. Such subdirectory shall be made available at all times on the internet via the division homepage. Any person may apply to the division to receive automated e-mail notifications whenever a new or updated subdirectory registration occurs in a geographic area specified by such person. The division shall furnish such service at no charge to such person, who shall request e-mail notification by county and/or zip code on forms developed and provided by the division. E-mail notification is limited to three geographic areas per e-mail account.

North Carolina

No.

North Dakota

Yes, in some cases.

Ohio

Yes.

Oklahoma

Yes.  In some cases, the name and phone number of the employer is included.

Oregon

Yes, however the public registry only lists Level 3 offenders.

Pennsylvania

Post 12/20/12 applies to those whose offense was committed on or after December 20, 2012.

Pre 12/20/12 applies to those whose offense was committed before December 20, 2012.

Yes.

Employment addresses for individuals whose offense occurred before December 20, 2012 is limited to the municipality, county and zip code, in accordance with 42 Pa. C. S. 9799.63.

– Pennsylvania State Police

 Post 12/20/12 42 Pa C.S. § 9799.28

(b) Notwithstanding Chapter 63 (relating to juvenile matters) and 18 Pa.C.S. Ch. 91 (relating to criminal history record information), the Internet website shall contain the following information regarding an individual convicted of a sexually violent offense, a sexually violent predator or a sexually violent delinquent child:

(5) Street address, municipality, county, State and zip code of a fixed location where an individual convicted of a sexually violent offense, a sexually violent predator or a sexually violent delinquent child is employed. If an individual convicted of a sexually violent offense, a sexually violent predator or a sexually violent delinquent child is not employed at a fixed address, the information shall include general areas of work.

Pre 12/20/12 42 Pa C.S. § 9799.63

(c)(1) For sexually violent predators, the following information shall be posted on the Internet website:

(v) the municipality, county and zip code of an employment location;

(2) For all other lifetime registrants and offenders subject to registration, the information specified in paragraph (1) shall be posted on the Internet website.

Rhode Island

No.

South Carolina

Yes.

South Dakota

No.

Tennessee

Yes.

TN Code § 40-39-206

(d) For any offender convicted in this state of a sexual offense or violent sexual offense, as defined by this part, that requires the offender to register pursuant to this part, the information concerning the registered offender set out in subdivisions (d)(1)-(16) shall be considered public information. If an offender from another state establishes a residence in this state and is required to register in this state pursuant to § 40-39-203, the information concerning the registered offender set out in subdivisions (d)(1)-(16) shall be considered public information regardless of the date of conviction of the offender in the other state. In addition to making the information available in the same manner as public records, the TBI shall prepare and place the information on the state’s internet home page. This information shall become a part of the Tennessee internet criminal information center when that center is created within the TBI. The TBI shall also establish and operate a toll-free telephone number, to be known as the “Tennessee Internet Criminal Information Center Hotline,” to permit members of the public to call and inquire as to whether a named individual is listed among those who have registered as offenders as required by this part. The following information concerning a registered offender is public:

(10) The name and address of any institution of higher education in the state at which the offender is employed, carries on a vocation or is a student;

Texas

No.

TX Code Crim Pro Art 62.005.

(b)  The information contained in the database, including the numeric risk level assigned to a person under this chapter, is public information, with the exception of any information:

(2)  that is described by Article 62.051(c)(7) or required by the department under Article 62.051(c)(9), including any information regarding an employer’s name, address, or telephone number;

Utah

Only if employed at an educational institution.  Volunteer locations are also included.

UT Code § 77-41-110

(4) Except as provided in Subsection (5), the Sex Offender and Kidnap Offender Notification and Registration website shall include the following registry information:

(g) each educational institution in Utah at which the offender is employed, carries on a vocation, or is a student;

(h) a list of places where the offender works as a volunteer;

Vermont

No.

Virginia

Yes.

VA Code § 9.1-913

The State Police shall develop and maintain a system for making certain Registry information on persons convicted of an offense for which registration is required publicly available by means of the Internet. The information to be made available shall include the offender’s name; all aliases that he has used or under which he may have been known; the date and locality of the conviction and a brief description of the offense; his age, current address, and photograph; his current work address; the name of any institution of higher education at which he is currently enrolled; and such other information as the State Police may from time to time determine is necessary to preserve public safety, including but not limited to the fact that an individual is wanted for failing to register, reregister, or verify his registration information. The system shall be secure and not capable of being altered except by the State Police. The system shall be updated each business day with newly received registrations, reregistrations and verifications of registration information. The State Police shall remove all information that it knows to be inaccurate from the Internet system.

Washington

No.

West Virginia

Only the names of the city and county where the registrant is employed are provided.

Wisconsin

No.

Wyoming

Yes.

WY Stat § 7-19-303

(c) (iii) Notification of registration under this act shall be provided to the public through a public registry, as well as to the persons and entities required by paragraph (ii) of this subsection. The division shall make the public registry available to the public, with the exception of internet identifiers, telephone numbers and adjudications as delinquent unless disclosure is authorized pursuant to W.S. 7-19-309, through electronic internet technology and shall include:

(K) The physical address of any employer that employs the offender;

Washington DC

Yes.

Address information is provided at the block level only; no specific addresses are provided.

– Metropolitan Police Department

Guam

Yes.

Title 9 GCA § 89.11

(d) Information on the Public Sex Offender Registry Website. The following information shall be made available to the public on the sex offender registry website:

(4) the address of the sex offender’s employer;

Northern Mariana Islands

Yes.

6 CMC §1374

(a) Required Information. The following information shall be made available to the public on the sex offender registry website:

(4) The address of the sex offender’s employer(s),

Puerto Rico

Yes, in some cases.

U.S. Virgin Islands

Yes.

14 V.I.C. § 1727

(e) The Attorney General shall use and maintain a public sex offender registry website. The sex offender registry website shall:

(6) include the following information:

(v) the address of the sex offender’s employer(s)

Sex Offender Registry Removal

Some states offer the possibility for registrants to be removed from the registry after meeting certain requirements.  Visit the Collateral Consequences Resource Center for a state by state comparison of relief from sex offender registration obligations.

If your state offers a path off the registry, search our directory for a lawyer with experience in registry removal applications.